02/2023. Allergy vaccines and trained immunity

The concept of trained immunity-based vaccines (TIbV) applied to allergen vaccines is described in the journal Clinical and Experimental Allergy.   

TIbV contain antigens and inducers of trained immunity that elicit long-lasting epigenteic and metabolic changes in cells of innate immunity, including dendritic cells.  These cells, although not antigen specific, are essential for the induction of adaptive responses. The same concept can be applied to allergy vaccines containing, in addition to allergens, agents that induce such changes. These vaccines (TIbAV, trained immunity-based allergen vaccines) may contain tolerogenic inducers that train dendritic cells to promote tolerogenic responses, not only to the allergens contained in the vaccine but also to other allergens (bystander) not contained in the vaccine.  An example of TIbAV are polymerized allergens conjugated to mannan, since they generate tolerogenic responses by acting on dendritic cells through metabolic and epigenetic changes.

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